what is audit and assurance

Posted by Hassan Askry

Audit and Assurance:
We need assurance to,
  • Increase confidence
  • Reduce risk
It is very complicated topic to understand but you can understand it completely assurance and element of transaction through this example

For example if you want to purchase a house and you consult a person for this purchase. What are the elements that could be a part of this transaction?

1.      User (i.e. you)
2.      Subject Matter (in this case it is the House to purchase)
3.      Practitioner ( the consultant with which you consult)
4.      responsible party (the party through which you want to purchase house)
5.      Criteria (the terms and conditions of buying)


In case of companies assurance, companies want assurance of their companies and they consult with practitioners i.e. Audit Firms. It increases the confidence of the companies and reduces the risk.

The following two types of assurance that auditors could give it to you


Types of Assurance 
there are only two types of assurance which are reasonable assurance  and  limited assurance


Reasonable Assurance
Limited Assurance
High Level     
Moderate Level
Positive Report
Negative Report





Positive report:
Positive report doesn’t mean that practitioner is saying that every thing is absolutely correct but they broadly speaking say” it is repayable”

Negative Report:
Mean that Practitioners say “nothing has comes to our attention that causes us to believe that Financial statement are prepared in all material aspect in accordance with applicable reporting framework.